5. The Evidence for the Theory is Irrefutable ==>
   5.1. Direct Evidence ==>
     5.1.2. Genetic Evidence ==> How DNA Works ==> Phylogenetic trees

Phylogenetics is the scientific discipline concerned with describing and reconstructing the patterns of genetic relationships among species and among higher taxa. Phylogenetic trees are a convenient way of visually representing the evolutionary history of life.

Phylogenetic trees represent evolutionary relationships.

The legal test in the U. S. for admissibility of expert testimony is the Daubert guidelines

The Daubert guidelines state that a trial court should consider five factors in determining "whether the testimony's underlying reasoning or methodology is scientifically valid":
(1) whether the theory or technique in question can be and has been tested;

(2) whether it has been subjected to peer review and publication;

(3) its known or potential error rate;

(4) the existence and maintenance of standards controlling its operation; and

(5) whether it has attracted widespread acceptance within the relevant scientific community

(quoted nearly verbatim).


Phylogenetic analysis has officially met these legal requirements.

In the past decade, phylogenetic analyses have played a significant role

in successful convictions in 9 court cased documented in the article below.

See the Complete Explanation of Phylogenetic trees @ http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/comdesc/phylo.html .

Be sure to note all the references to legitimate research.

By studying the standard phylogenetic tree it can be seen that every

species has a unique genealogical history. Each species has a unique

series of common ancestors linking it to the original common ancestor.

We should expect that organisms carry evidence of this history and

ancestry with them. The standard phylogenetic tree predicts what

historical evidence is possible and what is impossible for each given

species. Thus the concept of an organism's unique genealogical

history is closely related to the concept of evolutionary opportunism.