24:4 And Moses wrote all the words of the LORD, and rose up early in the morning, and builded an altar under the hill, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel.
Moses DID NOT write Exodus
Consider the practical issues of Moses around that ancient time (approximately 1300 BC).
There were no organized written languages!
Written language was developed around 400 to 600 years later.
Only symbol systems such as Egyptian hieroglyphics existed,(see history of written language below) and they were not really languages.
They were not capable of expressing sophisticated concepts such as the Sabbath.
It would likely take hundreds of picture symbols to express the single sentence, "Honor the Sabbath".
In addition, Moses was busy leading a group of two million people across a desert and had many more urgent things to be dealing with than carving hieroglyphic symbols into stones!
The Offending Pharaoh isn't even named.
Isn't it strange that the name of the Pharoah causing all of the jews' problems is never named?
Everyone else is named. Moses had to know the name of the Pharaoh but he never calls him out.
Even today, we know the names of the Pharaohs back to the first dynasty. I suspect the offending pharaoh is never named because who ever wrote Exodus, long after the alleged events, had no clue as to the names of any of the Pharoahs.
Moses refers to himself in second? person
If Moses wrote Exodus, why does he refer to himself by name?
For example... Exodus 6:2 "And God spake unto Moses, and said unto him, I am the LORD":
If this had been written by Moses, that verse would read...And God spake unto me, and said unto me, I am the LORD:
The writers of the new testament write in the first person so it is obviously done in the bible.
More evidence that Exodus was not written by Moses.
Impossible to remember and record all gawds nonsense
There are 40 chapters of excruciating detail in Exodus alone. There are 32,685 words in Exodus, an average of 800 words per chapter. The "words of the LORD" refered to above are the 10 commandments and the "judgements" (Exodus 20:1 - 24:3); that would be about 1200 words in those three chapters.
In Exodus, God reveals many laws and dictates to Moses. Since Moses was not God, he would have had to commit every word, without error, to memory until he could chisel them into stone.
Here is an example of the level of detail to which I am referring.
There are 1256 words in the italicized text below.
Let me read them to you and then you chisel them in hieroglyphics on a stone tablet.
25:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
25:2 Speak unto the children of Israel, that they bring me an offering: of every man that giveth it willingly with his heart ye shall take my offering.
25:3 And this is the offering which ye shall take of them; gold, and silver, and brass,
OH - like gawd gives a shit about gold, silver and brass
25:4 And blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen, and goats' hair,
25:5 And rams' skins dyed red, and badgers' skins, and shittim wood,
25:6 Oil for the light, spices for anointing oil, and for sweet incense,
25:7 Onyx stones, and stones to be set in the ephod, and in the breastplate.
25:8 And let them make me a sanctuary; that I may dwell among them.
25:9 According to all that I shew thee, after the pattern of the tabernacle, and the pattern of all the instruments thereof, even so shall ye make it.
25:10 And they shall make an ark of shittim wood: two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof.
25:11 And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, within and without shalt thou overlay it, and shalt make upon it a crown of gold round about.
25:12 And thou shalt cast four rings of gold for it, and put them in the four corners thereof; and two rings shall be in the one side of it, and two rings in the other side of it.
25:13 And thou shalt make staves of shittim wood, and overlay them with gold.
25:14 And thou shalt put the staves into the rings by the sides of the ark, that the ark may be borne with them.
25:15 The staves shall be in the rings of the ark: they shall not be taken from it.
25:16 And thou shalt put into the ark the testimony which I shall give thee.
25:17 And thou shalt make a mercy seat of pure gold: two cubits and a half shall be the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the breadth thereof.
25:18 And thou shalt make two cherubims of gold, of beaten work shalt thou make them, in the two ends of the mercy seat.
25:19 And make one cherub on the one end, and the other cherub on the other end: even of the mercy seat shall ye make the cherubims on the two ends thereof.
25:20 And the cherubims shall stretch forth their wings on high, covering the mercy seat with their wings, and their faces shall look one to another; toward the mercy seat shall the faces of the cherubims be.
25:21 And thou shalt put the mercy seat above upon the ark; and in the ark thou shalt put the testimony that I shall give thee.
25:22 And there I will meet with thee, and I will commune with thee from above the mercy seat, from between the two cherubims which are upon the ark of the testimony, of all things which I will give thee in commandment unto the children of Israel.
25:23 Thou shalt also make a table of shittim wood: two cubits shall be the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof.
25:24 And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, and make thereto a crown of gold round about.
25:25 And thou shalt make unto it a border of an hand breadth round about, and thou shalt make a golden crown to the border thereof round about.
25:26 And thou shalt make for it four rings of gold, and put the rings in the four corners that are on the four feet thereof.
25:27 Over against the border shall the rings be for places of the staves to bear the table.
25:28 And thou shalt make the staves of shittim wood, and overlay them with gold, that the table may be borne with them.
25:29 And thou shalt make the dishes thereof, and spoons thereof, and covers thereof, and bowls thereof, to cover withal: of pure gold shalt thou make them.
25:30 And thou shalt set upon the table shewbread before me alway.
25:31 And thou shalt make a candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work shall the candlestick be made: his shaft, and his branches, his bowls, his knops, and his flowers, shall be of the same.
25:32 And six branches shall come out of the sides of it; three branches of the candlestick out of the one side, and three branches of the candlestick out of the other side:
25:33 Three bowls made like unto almonds, with a knop and a flower in one branch; and three bowls made like almonds in the other branch, with a knop and a flower: so in the six branches that come out of the candlestick.
25:34 And in the candlesticks shall be four bowls made like unto almonds, with their knops and their flowers.
25:35 And there shall be a knop under two branches of the same, and a knop under two branches of the same, and a knop under two branches of the same, according to the six branches that proceed out of the candlestick.
25:36 Their knops and their branches shall be of the same: all it shall be one beaten work of pure gold.
25:37 And thou shalt make the seven lamps thereof: and they shall light the lamps thereof, that they may give light over against it.
25:38 And the tongs thereof, and the snuffdishes thereof, shall be of pure gold.
25:39 Of a talent of pure gold shall he make it, with all these vessels.
25:40 And look that thou make them after their pattern, which was shewed thee in the mount.
ad infinitum delirium
38:17 And the sockets for the pillars were of brass; the hooks of the pillars and their fillets of silver; and the overlaying of their chapiters of silver; and all the pillars of the court were filleted with silver.
38:18 And the hanging for the gate of the court was needlework, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen: and twenty cubits was the length, and the height in the breadth was five cubits, answerable to the hangings of the court.
38:19 And their pillars were four, and their sockets of brass four; their hooks of silver, and the overlaying of their chapiters and their fillets of silver.
38:20 And all the pins of the tabernacle, and of the court round about, were of brass.
38:21 This is the sum of the tabernacle, even of the tabernacle of testimony, as it was counted, according to the commandment of Moses, for the service of the Levites, by the hand of Ithamar, son to Aaron the priest.
38:22 And Bezaleel the son Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah, made all that the LORD commanded Moses.
38:23 And with him was Aholiab, son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan, an engraver, and a cunning workman, and an embroiderer in blue, and in purple, and in scarlet, and fine linen.
38:24 All the gold that was occupied for the work in all the work of the holy place, even the gold of the offering, was twenty and nine talents, and seven hundred and thirty shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary.
38:25 And the silver of them that were numbered of the congregation was an hundred talents, and a thousand seven hundred and threescore and fifteen shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary:
38:26 A bekah for every man, that is, half a shekel, after the shekel of the sanctuary, for every one that went to be numbered, from twenty years old and upward, for six hundred thousand and three thousand and five hundred and fifty men.
See how long it takes you to memorize this list of requirements for the Ark of the Covenant and then see if you can still remember them a week from now - for it would surely take at least a week to carve them into stone.
State of Writing Craft
Writing, in 1300 BCE was barely beyond pictures on cave walls. Since writing was in it's infancy, how was all this detail accurately remembered and recorded?
"The Egyptians developed one of the first forms of writing, cuneiform. The pictographs were stylized, rotated and impressed in clay with a wedge shaped stylus to become the script known as Cuneiform."
See http://www.historian.net/hxwrite.htm or http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_alphabet for excellent presentations on the state of writing at the time of Exodus.
Here is a statement about the stage of writing at about the time of the alleged Exodus:
"The Middle Bronze Age scripts of Egypt have yet to be deciphered. However, they appear to be at least partially, and perhaps completely, alphabetic. The oldest examples are found as graffiti from central Egypt and date to around 1800 BCE"
HAVE YET TO BE DECIPHERED! Known, in-the-hand scripts*, have yet to be deciphered! But we are to believe that Moses was somehow able to "write" down every detail and then have what he wrote deciphered.
In what language did Moses write?
Written Hebrew didn't evolve until 800 BCE
On what did Moses write?
Papyrus was available and known in that time but not in the desert.
* Where are the original writings of Moses? If we don't have them, how do we know what he said? Is it not possible that the story got embellished through multiple translations? If that is so, what part of it is true? Answer... none of it is true.
Moses, leading 2 million disgruntled people in circles in the desert with all the attendent problems appertaining thereto, is able to record in excruciating detail, all those parts of the bible that are attributed to him.